• slider1

  • slider2

An African official online Research Journal                  Volume 3 Issue 4 was released                   Call For papers for Volume 4 Issue 1

Volume 3 Issue 1

Assessment of Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Properties of Crude Leaf and Bark extracts of Ceiba pentandra on Selected Clinical Isolates Found in Nigerian Teaching Hospital

Osuntokun O.T* and Adeoye M I

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, AkungbaAkoko, P.M.B 001, Ondo state, Nigeria


Ceibapentandrais a tropical tree of order Malvales and the family Malvaceae. The basic objective of this research work is to determine the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of Ceibapentandra.  Fresh leaves and bark of Ceibapetandrawas collected at AkungbaAkoko. Ceibapentandra (leaf and bark) were prepared for extraction using ethyl acetate. The test organism used for this research work are: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis,  Kleibsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus.  Antimicrobial assay was carried out using Agar dilution method. Four concentrations were used namely; 60, 30, 15, and 7.5 mg/ml. Ethyl acetate was most highly reactive with the highest zone of inhibition (11.0) and lowest zone of inhibition (1.0). The phytochemical screening shows that flavonoid and Anthraquinone are absent while Cardiac Glycoside, Steroid, Phenol, Tannins, Saponin and alkaloid is present. Quantitative analyses were carried out on the elemental composition of Ceibapentandra. The elements present are: Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, lead, copper and manganense. In Ceibapentandraleaf, calcium has a higher value (29.34) while copper has the lowest value (1.00). Potassium has the highest value (43.21) while iron has the lowest value (4.36)in bark extract of Ceibapentandra while lead and copper are not detected. Quantitative analyses of anti –nutrients were carried out on Ceibapentandra. The anti-nutrients present are: Tannin, Phenol, Phylate, Oxalate, Saponin, Flavonoid and Alkaloids. Phylate has the highest ant-nutrients percentage (leaf 12.33% and bark 12.45%) while Tannin has the lowest value (leaf 2.30% and bark 2.25%). Proximate analysis was carried out on Ceibapentandra. Ash, moisture content, crude protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate are present. Carbohydrate has the highest percentage (leaf 53.72% and bark 53.79%) while and Fat has the lowest percentage which is (leaf 8.53% and bark 8.50%). The research shows that Ceibapentandra is an effective medicinal plant therefore the use of medicinal plants should be encouraged.


Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, phytochemical activity, proximate composition, elemental constituent

Click here for Full length Article


Health Status of the Lower River Niger Basin, with Reference to Heavy Metals in Water, Sediments and Tissue of a Benthic Fish

1* Ikpesu Thomas Ohwofasa, 2Friday Upadhi

1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Otuoke, Nigeria

2Department of Biology, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



The aim of this investigation is to evaluate heavy metals concentration in the surface water, bottom sediments and a benthic fish from Null River, lower River Niger Basin Nigeria. Lagos fishing port was chosen based on its proximity to ship harbours, industrial and agricultural activities. Samples were collected monthly in 2015/16 for the period of one year. A total of 36 samples were collected and analyzed using computer controlled Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 969) for the present of; Arsenic, Cadmium, Iron, Manganese, Lead, Copper and Zinc (As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb,Cu and Zn). The concentrations of these metals were higher in dry season than wet season for all the analyzed parameters.  Considering the matrixes, highest concentrations was observed in the sediment, intermediate in C.gariepinus, and lowest in surface water, except for Cu, which were higher in the fish than in the bottom sediments. Fishes have the ability to concentrate heavy metals in their muscles, and subsequently bio accumulates along the food chain. This is the first time of investigating water quality and the health status of River Nun with reference to heavy metal concentrations. It becomes imperative to carry out a detailed water quality assessment of the river. The River needs proper screening in ensuring that unnecessary high level of some toxic metals are not being transferred to man through fish consumption, given that the river supplies water that are used for domestic purposes and fishes which are being sold to the public. The total metal potential risk in the Lower Niger River indicated threat to resident aquatic life, hence surveillance of the water body become indispensable for the sustenance of the nascent Niger Delta ecological zone

KeywordsHeavy metals, Water, Sediment, Fish, Seasons and Niger Delta

Click here for Full length Article



Assessment, Monitoring and Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions due to Polypharmacy

 Dr. M Madhan Mohan Rao1, H. Shree Hari*2, R. Siddarama2, Shilpa Sudarshanan2G. Geetha priya3

 1 Associate professor, Department of General Medicine, RIMS, Kadapa, India

 2 Department of Pharmacy practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, PRRMCP, Kadapa, India

 Department of Pharmacy practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, ANCP, Kadapa, India



 Poly-pharmacy significantly increases the likelihood of adverse reactions to drugs, risk of hospitalization and medication errors related to drugs. It depends on the number of drugs, the disease and patient related factors. Poly-pharmacy is a major risk factor for severe adverse drug reactions (ADR’S) and is associated with increased risk of mortality. The main aim of this study was to assessment and monitoring of polypharmacy leading to adverse drug reaction. A Prospective observational study was carried out in Rajiv Gandhi institute of medical sciences (RIMS), a 750 bedded tertiary care teaching hospital, Kadapa, for the period of 7 months in the all deportments of hospital. A total of 448 cases of polypharmacy were identified, among that males were 246 and females were 202. Out of 448 cases, 252 patients were major polypharmacy and 196 were minor polypharmacy. Among 114 ADRs, 22.80% from MICU, 31.57% from MMW, 27.19% from FMW, 10.52% from PSY and 7.89 from DVL. The identified ADRs were reported to physician and the causality assessment was done for 114 ADRs by using Naranjo’s scale. According to Naranjo’s scale 24 (60.28%) ADRs were definitely, 52 (57.42%) were probable, 38 (81.37%) were possible. The role of pharmacists is important to continually educate but also to have access to complete patient records. So they could look at all of the medications that may be given to the patient for better patient care.

 Keywords: Adverse Drug Reactions, Polypharmacy, adverse drug reactions, Naranjo’s scale

Click here for Full length Article